Varicela, Potencialmente Peligrosa en Adultos

La varicela es una enfermedad eruptiva contagiosa común en los niños. Pero en adultos no inmunes, puede llevar a complicaciones que pueden ser peligrosas.

La varicela es una infección causada por el virus VZV (acrónimo de Varicella Zooster Virus). La varicela es un miembro de la familia Herpesviridae. El virus de la varicela es una erupción cutánea infantil generalmente benigna: al ser altamente contagiosa, la enfermedad infecta rápidamente a los niños.

Se estima que el 90% de los adultos han contraído la enfermedad. Se caracteriza por la aparición de pequeñas pústulas particulares que pueden producir mucha picazón. La varicela es una enfermedad inmunizante: los anticuerpos persisten en la sangre, protegiendo el cuerpo, pero el virus permanece latente en los nódulos nerviosos. En los adultos, la varicela puede causar complicaciones graves, especialmente complicaciones pulmonares.

¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la varicela en los adultos?

Generalmente, el período de incubación de la varicela es de unos quince días. En los adultos, los primeros signos de varicela suelen ser similares a los que se observan en los niños. El sarpullido es característico de la enfermedad: es una pequeña gota de rocío que luego se seca para formar una costra. Tienen la particularidad de causar una picazón severa.

Con frecuencia, las vesículas aparecen primero en el cuero cabelludo y en el pecho. Antes de que aparezcan las vesículas, puede aparecer una fiebre moderada. La erupción también puede estar asociada con otros síntomas tales como síntomas similares a los de la gripe. En los adultos, la varicela también puede dar otras señales de advertencia como tos, dificultades respiratorias o hemoptisis (tos con emisión de sangre).

¿Cuáles son los factores de riesgo para la varicela en los adultos?

Como la varicela es una enfermedad infantil, el contacto con niños pequeños aumenta drásticamente el riesgo de entrar en contacto con la enfermedad y contraerla. Por lo tanto, se recomienda vacunar a las mujeres en edad fértil o con un plan parental antes de iniciar un embarazo.

Las personas inmunocomprometidas tienen un mayor riesgo de contraer la enfermedad si entran en contacto con una persona infectada. También en este caso, se recomienda la vacuna.

¿Cómo prevenir la varicela en los adultos?

La varicela es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa. Se transmite principalmente a través de gotas de saliva infectada. El virus entonces entra rápidamente en el tracto respiratorio. Se recomienda la vacunación en:

  • Profesionales de la salud o de la primera infancia que no hayan contraído la enfermedad;
  • Mujeres en edad fértil (precaución, la vacunación está contraindicada en mujeres embarazadas);
  • Las madres jóvenes;
  • Adolescentes.

En otros casos, no hay indicaciones. Actualmente existen dos tipos de vacunas contra la varicela que ofrecen una eficacia que oscila entre el 65% y el 100%. Sin embargo, la vacunación está contraindicada en mujeres embarazadas. Si el adulto nunca ha contraído varicela, debe evitar el contacto con niños infectados tanto como sea posible.

¿Cuáles son los tratamientos para la varicela en los adultos?

En primer lugar, es necesario evitar la superinfección bacteriana ligada a la formación de costras. Estos pueden ser desinfectados cuidadosamente con clorhexidina. Si las vesículas están infectadas, se puede prescribir un antibiótico.

La fiebre y el dolor pueden aliviarse tomando un analgésico del tipo del paracetamol, pero bajo ninguna circunstancia se deben tomar medicamentos antiinflamatorios. Si la picazón es demasiado intensa, se pueden usar antihistamínicos.

El uso de agentes antivirales como el aciclovir se reserva para la varicela complicada, por ejemplo en casos de neumonitis por varicela. En caso de dificultad respiratoria, se puede considerar la hospitalización.

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