Luz Azul: ¿Qué Efectos tiene Sobre la Piel?

La luz azul no tiene buena prensa. Riesgo de dañar la retina, jugar con el sueño, también podría dañar nuestra piel. Las marcas de cosméticos ahora ofrecen productos para el cuidado de la piel para protegernos de esta contaminación lumínica. ¿Tienen un interés real?. ¿Cuál es el impacto de la luz azul en la piel?.

Las marcas de cosméticos están desarrollando gamas de luz anti-azul, surfeando sobre la supuesta fototoxicidad de este rayo de luz con una longitud de onda que oscila entre los 400 y los 600 nanómetros.

Estudios recientes han demostrado que la luz azul en nuestras pantallas daña la retina, puede promover la DMAE (degeneración macular relacionada con la edad), afectar la concentración o minar nuestro estado de ánimo.

¿Pero qué hay de la piel?. Los expertos llaman a la vigilancia frente a nuestras pantallas porque la luz azul generaría estrés oxidativo, al igual que el tabaco, la contaminación o los rayos UV. ¿Es la luz azul realmente el enemigo de nuestra piel?. Para tener una idea más clara, le hicimos la pregunta a Estelle Darenox, dermatóloga francesa.

¿La luz azul tiene efectos positivos en la piel?

Estelle Darenox: Sabemos por estudios de investigación que la luz azul, suministrada a baja energía por los LEDs, puede mejorar los procesos de curación, particularmente mejorando la vascularización y acelerando la producción de nueva piel.

Una dosis baja de luz azul también puede tener un efecto antimicrobiano. El acné, o infecciones micóticas de la piel y las uñas, se puede mejorar con luz azul.

Pero la luz azul que nos llega del sol (o de las pantallas de nuestros dispositvos) también tiene efectos nocivos sobre nosotros, como han demostrado estudios recientes.

¿Que tan mala es la luz azul para la dermis?

Estelle Darenox: La luz azul induce una pigmentación duradera (hasta 3 meses) en la piel, especialmente en los fototipos III y superiores (es decir, piel más oscura, fototipo I correspondiente a piel muy clara y fototipo VI a piel muy oscura).

En otras palabras, son los fototipos III y superiores los que deben protegerse especialmente de la luz azul para evitar manchas en la piel (melasma, máscara de embarazo, tareas relacionadas con el envejecimiento cutáneo…).

La luz azul también es acusada de hacer que la piel envejezca más rápido….

Estelle Darenox: Sí, la luz azul está implicada en el envejecimiento de la piel. Es bien sabido que los rayos ultravioletas (rayos de luz con una longitud de onda de entre 100 y 400 nanómetros) son la causa principal del envejecimiento de la piel. Su corta longitud de onda les da mucha energía, y pueden inducir daño al ADN.

La luz azul tiene una longitud de onda más larga que los rayos UV, su energía es menos importante, pero estos rayos penetran más profundamente en la piel, donde también pueden tener efectos dañinos.

Se ha demostrado que la luz azul altera la estructura de las células epidérmicas (queratinocitos) y disminuye la producción de colágeno y elastina (dos proteínas responsables de la firmeza y elasticidad de la piel).

Estas modificaciones se deben, por un lado, al daño del ADN de las células (queratinocitos y fibroblastos) y, por otro, al aumento de los fenómenos de oxidación (aumento de la producción de ROS = Reactive Oxygen Species).

La industria cosmética se propone proteger nuestra piel de los daños causados por esta luz azul. ¿Este cuidado tiene un interés real?

Estelle Darenox: Las gamas de cosméticos azules (antiluz) tienen interés, tanto para limitar la aparición de manchas en la piel, especialmente en el fototipo III y por encima de la piel, como para prevenir el envejecimiento cutáneo.

Pero es importante saber que todo lo que se comporta como un protector de luz bloquea la luz azul; por ejemplo, un protector solar mineral (a base de dióxido de zinc o dióxido de titanio), o una base, protege hasta cierto punto contra la luz azul.

¿Cuáles son los otros reflejos para proteger su piel diariamente de esta contaminación lumínica azul?

Estelle Darenox: Para protegerse de los efectos nocivos de la luz azul sobre la piel, es bueno tomar antioxidantes por vía oral (alimentos ricos en vitamina A, E, selenio, betacaroteno…), aplicar antioxidantes por la mañana (por ejemplo, un suero con vitamina C) o un protector solar de tipo mineral, o una base.

Además, hay dispositivos médicos en forma de cremas que contienen reparadores de ADN (protección solar con reparadores de ADN, para personas que sufren de queratosis solares). Además, es necesario proteger los ojos con gafas anti-UV.

Y no debemos olvidar que todo lo que nos ilumina, natural o artificialmente, puede emitir luz azul… así que el sol, pero también las lámparas, las pantallas… “así que no olvides activar el modo nocturno de tus smartphones y tabletas, porque suprime la luz azul”.

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