Los Corazónes artificiales existentes

Corazón artificial y su funcionamiento

¿Cuáles son los corazones artificiales que existen?

Los corazones artificiales utilizados en cirugía cardíaca son numerosos (Cardiowest, HeartMate I y II, Novacor, etc.). Todos los núcleos artificiales funcionan como una bomba motorizada accionada por una carcasa externa.

Pero hoy en día, las bioprótesis computarizadas se están desarrollando. Hablamos de bioprótesis, porque estas prótesis cardíacas están hechas de pericardio de pantorrilla (tratado con glutaraldehído), un biomaterial, por lo que no hay problemas de coagulación o rechazo.

Se informatizan mediante software y electrónica de última generación (microprocesador y 7 sensores en particular), capaces de analizar las presiones de entrada y salida del ventrículo después de cada latido y adaptar el gasto cardiaco.

Corazón artificial: ¿cuáles son las condiciones para la cirugía?

En España, debido al número limitado de trasplantes de corazón, los hospitales se ven obligados a seleccionar pacientes para el trasplante de corazón. Se ha establecido que las personas mayores de 60 años no podrán beneficiarse de ella.

Sin embargo, la implantación cardiaca de un corazón artificial sigue siendo posible (sin límite de edad). Además, algunos pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar no pueden beneficiarse de un trasplante de corazón debido a la presión arterial alta, que no es un problema con un corazón artificial.

Lo mismo se aplica a los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca grave que no son elegibles para trasplantes, pero que son candidatos para la implantación. Son estos últimos los más afectados por la implantación de corazones artificiales.

¿Existe alguna contraindicación para el uso de un corazón artificial?

Aunque estas no son contraindicaciones en sentido estricto, un corazón artificial total no siempre se adapta a la caja torácica del paciente. Así, sólo el 65% de los candidatos a este tipo de implantación serían anatómicamente compatibles con esta prótesis cardiaca (en particular la prótesis Carmat, que cuesta hasta 250.000 euros).

En cualquier caso, el corazón artificial se ofrece a pacientes que a menudo se encuentran al final de su vida y que se encuentran en un callejón sin salida terapéutica, a los que esta implantación ofrece una estancia potencial de varios años.

Corazón artificial: ¿qué es el seguimiento postoperatorio?

La colocación de un corazón artificial es una cirugía mayor bastante similar a un trasplante de corazón. Sin embargo, a diferencia de los trasplantes, los implantes cardíacos no necesitan ser complementados con terapia anticoagulante.

Los corazones artificiales deben funcionar durante al menos cinco años, y se lleva a cabo un seguimiento regular, teniendo en cuenta que el retorno a la plena circulación normal debe ser gradual. Sin embargo, no es raro que los pacientes mueran en los meses siguientes, por lo general debido a su estado general ya deteriorado.

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