La obesidad infantil aumenta el riesgo de osteoartritis de rodilla y cadera

La obesidad infantil y el riesgo de osteoartritis

La obesidad infantil es un factor de riesgo para la osteoartritis en la edad adulta.

La obesidad infantil aumenta el riesgo de artrosis de rodilla y cadera en la edad adulta, según los resultados de un estudio publicado en el Congreso Europeo Anual de Reumatología (EULAR 2018).

La obesidad y la osteoartritis son dos problemas de salud interrelacionados que afectan a una gran parte de la población adulta mundial, pero estudiar la causalidad en esta asociación es difícil debido a factores de confusión.

Para probar la hipótesis de que la asociación entre la obesidad y la artrosis es causal, los investigadores utilizaron un método conocido como “aleatorización mendeliana”, que utiliza variantes genéticas para determinar si un biomarcador tiene un efecto sobre el riesgo de desarrollar una enfermedad.

“La obesidad en la infancia y la edad adulta es un importante problema de salud pública”, dijo el profesor Johannes W. Bijlsma, Presidente de EULAR. “Estos datos que muestran una relación causal con la osteoartritis deberían dar un nuevo impulso para abordar el problema de la obesidad y reducir las discapacidades relacionadas”.

Los resultados del estudio revelaron que el índice de masa corporal (IMC) en adultos aumenta significativamente la prevalencia de osteoartritis, artritis de rodilla o de cadera en un 2,7%, 1,3% y 0,4% por unidad (1 kg/m2).

Pero también que el IMC en los niños aumentó significativamente la prevalencia de la OA autoinformada, la OA de la rodilla o de la cadera en 1.7%, 0.6% y 0.6% por unidad de IMC, respectivamente. No se encontró ninguna asociación entre el IMC adulto o pediátrico y la OA de la mano.

“Nuestros resultados sugieren que el efecto del IMC adulto parece ser más fuerte en las rodillas, mientras que el IMC infantil podría tener un impacto similar en el riesgo de osteoartritis de rodilla y cadera”, dijo el profesor Prieto-Alhambra. “Curiosamente, nuestros resultados contradicen estudios anteriores que han encontrado una asociación entre la obesidad y la OA de la mano”.

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