Dolor de hombro: ¿cómo aliviarlo?

Dolor de hombro y su forma de aliviarlo

El dolor de hombro, que es frecuente en las mujeres, es una de las razones más comunes de consulta después de los 50 años. Es muy a menudo una tendinitis, que no puede dejar asi….

Cada mañana, cuando te peinas, ¡movilizas el hombro!. Esta articulación, que le permite mover el brazo en casi cualquier dirección, está particularmente en tensión en los movimientos cotidianos. También se vuelve frágil por la repetida fricción que se produce allí. No es de extrañar entonces que con el tiempo, puede llegar a ser doloroso.

“La causa más común de dolor de hombro es la tendinitis del manguito rotador. A menudo se relaciona con un movimiento falso o repetitivo del hombro”, dice la reumatóloga Dra. Agnès Portier. Jugar al tenis pero también pintar un techo o planchar durante largas horas…. Todas estas actividades pueden causar dolor en el hombro debido a la inflamación de los tendones.

Un dolor que poco a poco se instala

Este dolor suele aparecer gradualmente a lo largo de unos pocos días, causando molestias en los movimientos normales. En tales casos, es importante evitar, en la medida de lo posible, reproducir el movimiento responsable del dolor, o cualquier movimiento que suponga una carga excesiva para el hombro, como por ejemplo llevar una carga. Los medicamentos antiinflamatorios pueden proporcionar alivio en esta etapa.

Fisioterapia si la molestia persiste

Si el problema se mantiene con gestos ordinarios, como codazos, movimientos repetitivos como manejar un ratón de computadora o calcificaciones del hombro, el dolor puede aparecer y causar rigidez en el hombro. La tendinitis entonces se vuelve crónica y más difícil de aliviar.

“Un buen tratamiento de la tendinitis requerirá a menudo fisioterapia para lograr una reorientación de la articulación. Debido al dolor, tendemos a adoptar malas posiciones pero también a dejar de mover el hombro con el riesgo de endurecerlo”, explica el Dr. Portier.

A veces las infiltraciones necesarias

Mal tratada, la tendinitis puede convertirse en capsulitis retráctil. “La cápsula articular que permite realizar todos los movimientos del hombro es de tamaño reducido y limita la movilidad del hombro”, explica el Dr. Portier. En esta patología, que es bastante frecuente después de los 50 años, los analgésicos y antiinflamatorios suelen ser insuficientes.

“A menudo usamos la infiltración para restaurar el volumen de la cápsula. Este procedimiento a menudo es doloroso porque la cápsula retraída es forzada. Pero acompañándolo con fisioterapia, recuperaremos amplitud en el gesto y calmaremos el dolor”, dice el especialista, que nos recuerda que debemos ser pacientes. La rehabilitación puede tomar varios meses para restaurar la movilidad normal.

Las acciones correctas para proteger su hombro

Vestirse, llevar una bolsa, poner la mesa…… Cuando el dolor está presente, se deben tomar algunas precauciones para evitar mantenerlo.

  • No duerma sobre el hombro dolorido, no ponga este brazo sobre la cabeza en la noche, o debajo de la almohada. Prefiero una almohada ligeramente gruesa.
  • Evite los movimientos repetitivos y renuncie a las tareas que requieren que levante los brazos durante demasiado tiempo: lavar las ventanas, volver a pintar la habitación….
  • Olvídese de las actividades deportivas que fuerzan demasiado el hombro, como el tenis o el voleibol. ¡Prefiero la moto!.
  • Al vestirse, póngase ropa empezando por el hombro dolorido para evitar torcer el sensible brazo. Se debe hacer lo contrario al desvestirse.


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