Depresión Adolescente: ¿Cómo Detectarla?

Casi el 8% de los adolescentes entre los 12 y los 18 años sufren de depresión. Sin embargo, a esta temprana edad, los síntomas suelen pasar desapercibidos. Las autoridad sanitaria tienden a advertir a los médicos de familia sobre este tema.

Reunir la confianza de un adolescente que sufre es difícil, porque él o ella no confía espontáneamente en ellos. Sin embargo, casi el 8% de los jóvenes de entre 12 y 18 años sufren de depresión.

Es por ello que, por primera vez, se publican recomendaciones para que los médicos de cabecera puedan hacer el diagnóstico correcto. “Queremos ayudar a estos médicos de atención primaria a identificar el sufrimiento depresivo del adolescente, diagnosticar y evaluar la intensidad de la manifestación de la depresión, identificar una crisis suicida, establecer un manejo apropiado y referirlo a atención especializada si es necesario”, explica el vocero de sanidad.

No confundir la depresión con la depresión

Uno de los primeros pasos para identificar la depresión es no confundirla con la depresión que experimenta la mayoría de los jóvenes durante la adolescencia. “La depresión es un estado normal y transitorio durante el cual el adolescente presenta una serie de síntomas como pesimismo o inestabilidad emocional. Pero esta condición no afecta significativamente el funcionamiento diario, relacional o académico del adolescente, incluso si aún debe ser monitoreada porque es un factor de riesgo para la verdadera depresión. Por otro lado, la depresión (o un episodio depresivo caracterizado) produce síntomas verdaderamente depresivos: trastornos del estado de ánimo, trastornos del curso del pensamiento, trastornos físicos e instintivos, cogniciones negativas y pensamientos suicidas. Estos síntomas son a largo plazo y conducen a un sufrimiento clínicamente significativo y tienen un impacto en la vida diaria del adolescente”, insisten los expertos.

Establecer el diagnóstico correcto

A corto plazo, el objetivo del control de la depresión es controlar la crisis suicida y proteger al adolescente. A largo plazo, es necesario ayudarla a superar sus vulnerabilidades y recuperar su autoestima. “Para establecer el diagnóstico de depresión, los síntomas deben durar al menos 15 días y ser al menos cinco en número, incluyendo uno de los dos síntomas cardinales: estado de ánimo deprimido (o irritable) o pérdida de interés (o placer). El médico evaluará la intensidad de la depresión (leve, moderada o grave) y sus características sintomáticas (melancólica, atípica, ansiosa, mixta, psicótica)”, explica el vocero de sanidad, que recomienda que el adolescente que sufre sea referido primero a terapia antes de considerar la posibilidad de prescribirle medicamentos. “Si después de 4 a 8 semanas de psicoterapia, los síntomas persisten, se puede considerar el manejo de medicamentos. Pero sólo en asociación con la psicoterapia”.

Por último, la hospitalización se reserva para determinadas situaciones graves, cuando el riesgo de suicidio es inminente o cuando el contexto familiar es desfavorable.

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