¿Cuáles son las causas de las caídas de tensión?

Hipotensión y sus causas

Pequeñas estrellas delante de sus ojos, luego muy rápidamente, un velo negro y de repente, nada. Desagradable, estas caídas de tensión no son graves, siempre que nada se rompa al caer. Y las causas son múltiples.

Sensación de vértigo, piernas que se ablandan…. Es la incomodidad. nuestro cuerpo tiene una tolerancia muy pobre a las caídas de voltaje. Los sensores de presión ubicados en la pared arterial fallaron en su misión.

La información de la caída de la presión arterial (Hipotensión) no llegó al cerebro lo suficientemente rápido como para ser compensada. Asociada a una caída repentina de la tensión, la incomodidad suele durar sólo unos pocos momentos y se produce en situaciones muy específicas.

1: al levantarse o después de comer

Cuando te levantas, es hipotensión ortostática. Este cambio repentino en la presión es común en los ancianos o en aquellos con presión arterial naturalmente baja. Cuando se cambia de estar acostado a estar de pie, el cerebro está más alto que el corazón.

Para combatir la gravedad, el corazón debe enviar la sangre con más fuerza para que llegue a la parte superior del cuerpo, un reajuste a veces difícil en pocas fracciones de segundo. Del mismo modo, cuando se levanta demasiado rápido de la silla, la entrada repentina de sangre en las piernas puede provocar una disminución de la tensión y una sensación temporal de mareo.

Después de la comida, es hipotensión posprandial. Esta disminución de la presión arterial es común en personas con diabetes, insuficiencia cardíaca o renal y enfermedad de Parkinson. A las dos horas de una comida, la digestión absorbe la mayor parte de la energía y el flujo sanguíneo del cuerpo. Por lo tanto, la presión arterial puede disminuir, causando molestias en personas frágiles.

2: durante el embarazo

Durante el primer trimestre del embarazo, la tensión de la futura madre disminuye considerablemente. Debe dilatar sus vasos lo más posible para acomodar la sangre extra del bebé. En algunas personas, esto puede causar síncopas ocasionalmente. Las molestias también pueden ocurrir al final del embarazo por razones más mecánicas: el bebé y el útero comprimen la vena cava, que bloquea el retorno venoso de las piernas al corazón.

También hay caídas severas en la presión arterial en caso de sangrado severo, shock alérgico o infección generalizada. Pero estas situaciones no tienen nada que ver con un descenso temporal de la tensión, sino que requieren atención médica urgente.

3: A veces la caída de la presión arterial está relacionada con la toma de medicamentos.

Las caídas de voltaje son uno de los efectos secundarios más comunes mencionados en los prospectos de los medicamentos. Los diuréticos y en general todos los medicamentos para la hipertensión pueden causar molestias que requieren un reajuste de la dosis.

Los vasodilatadores recetados para la insuficiencia cardíaca o ansiolíticos y algunos antidepresivos también pueden ayudar a reducir la presión arterial. En caso de molestias recurrentes, es importante que hable con su médico para ajustar las dosis o cambiar el horario del medicamento.

Cómo reaccionar en caso de molestias

Estos son algunos de los reflejos que se deben tener cuando se empiezan a sentir los efectos de una caída de voltaje:

  • Siéntese tan pronto como se sienta mareado o borroso para evitar lastimarse al caerse.
  • Acuéstese levantando las piernas durante unos diez minutos para facilitar el retorno de la sangre y oxigenar el cerebro.
  • Especialmente nada de alcohol!. El alcohol dilata los vasos sanguíneos, lo que sólo empeoraría la situación. Un vaso de agua mineral, preferiblemente rica en sodio, es mucho más adecuado.

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