¿Cómo funciona la terapia de luz?

La fototerapia una medicina alternativa

La fototerapia puede ser considerada como una medicina alternativa que actúa sobre la secreción de melatonina. Esta hormona del sueño es sintetizada por la glándula pineal (o epífisis, que se encuentra en el cerebro) y se supone que se produce durante la noche (en la oscuridad).

En el caso de un mal funcionamiento de este mecanismo, el reloj biológico del cuerpo se interrumpe. Sin embargo, la luz producida por la lámpara de fototerapia, cuando llega a la retina, generará una reacción de la epífisis, que resincronizará este reloj biológico al inhibir la producción de melatonina, lo que promoverá la excitación.

¿Cuáles son las indicaciones de la fototerapia?

La terapia con luz brillante es especialmente eficaz para combatir la depresión estacional. Sin embargo, la terapia de luz también se puede utilizar para tratar:

  • Trastornos del sueño.
  • Depresión en los ancianos y después del parto (depresión del bebé).
  • Síndromes premenstruales.
  • Ciertas formas de trastornos alimentarios.
  • Ciertas enfermedades de la piel.
  • Ciertas enfermedades neurológicas (esclerosis múltiple, enfermedad de Parkinson, etc.).
  • La fototerapia también facilita la readaptación después del desfase horario.

Terapia de luz: ¿existe alguna contraindicación?

La luminoterapia practicada por profesionales es segura porque las lámparas están especialmente diseñadas para filtrar los rayos infrarrojos y ultravioletas que pueden ser nocivos. Sin embargo, hay varias contraindicaciones, a saber:

  • Tomar un medicamento fotosensibilizante.
  • Una enfermedad psiquiátrica, incluyendo el autismo.
  • Una patología oftalmológica como cataratas, glaucoma, retinopatía, etc.

Tenga en cuenta que para realizar sesiones en casa, debe estar equipado con una lámpara de calidad que cumpla con las normas actuales.

¿Cómo usar la terapia de luz?

La fototerapia puede ser realizada en un entorno médico por terapeutas (médico, psiquiatra, neurólogo, naturópata, etc.) o en casa. Si se programan sesiones, el enfoque debe ser personalizado, y se debe establecer un horario teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones de tiempo y semana de cada paciente, la época del año, la posibilidad de usar lentes correctivos o trastornos oftalmológicos.

También es posible comprar su propia lámpara y sesiones de práctica en casa. El tiempo de exposición depende de la intensidad de la lámpara (cuente media hora para una lámpara de 10.000 lux). A continuación, debe sentarse unos treinta centímetros delante de la lámpara, preferiblemente por la mañana cuando se despierte.

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