¿Cómo evitar la infidelidad?. Las respuestas de la ciencia

Estudio sobre la infidelidad de pareja

Los investigadores estadounidenses acaban de destacar los procesos psicológicos que conducen a la infidelidad y, a la inversa, promueven la fidelidad.

¿Existen mecanismos psicológicos para prevenir la infidelidad?. Un equipo de investigación de la Universidad Estatal de Florida en los Estados Unidos quería entender cómo las parejas se las arreglan, o fracasan, para evitar la tentación que las rodea. Los resultados de su estudio fueron publicados en el Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Durante tres años y medio, los investigadores dieron seguimiento a 233 parejas recién casadas. La satisfacción conyugal, el compromiso a largo plazo y su lealtad son información que ha sido identificada.

Al mismo tiempo, se pusieron a prueba dos procesos psicológicos: la desconexión de la atención y la devaluación de las parejas potenciales. La primera es la capacidad de desviar la atención de una persona atractiva y la segunda es la capacidad de devaluar mentalmente el atractivo de esa persona.

Reacciones automáticas que pueden ser reforzadas

Los recién casados tenían que mirar fotos de hombres y mujeres particularmente atractivos. Los científicos notaron que aquellos que rápidamente perdieron el interés en la foto, mirando hacia otro lado después de unos pocos milisegundos, eran menos propensos, dentro del 50%, a tener relaciones sexuales fuera del matrimonio.

Las personas fieles también valoraron las fotos mucho más negativamente. Por otro lado, los que tardaban más en apartar la vista eran más propensos a ser infieles y a ver fracasar su matrimonio.

Los autores del estudio explican que estas reacciones son generalmente automáticas y que seguramente han sido moldeadas por la biología y/o las experiencias de la primera infancia.

Sin embargo, estos resultados podrían proporcionar información para ayudar a las personas a mantenerse involucradas con sus parejas. Un fortalecimiento de estas capacidades psicológicas podría permitir a una persona tentada a usar conscientemente el desinterés o la devaluación.

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