Cáncer de Mama: Evaluación de la Eficacia del Tratamiento

Una nueva técnica de imagenología médica podría ayudar a determinar qué pacientes con cáncer de mama se beneficiarán más de la quimioterapia dos semanas después de que comience el tratamiento.

Una técnica no invasiva que utiliza luz roja cercana al infrarrojo podría ayudar a los profesionales de la salud a adaptar el tratamiento a los casos individuales de cáncer de mama de manera más efectiva, según los resultados de un estudio publicado en la revista médica Radiology.

Actualmente, menos de la mitad de las mujeres tratadas con quimioterapia para el cáncer de mama invasivo, administrada de cinco a seis semanas antes de la cirugía para extraer las células cancerosas activas, obtienen una respuesta completa.

Para determinar si el tratamiento es efectivo tan pronto como sea posible, los investigadores de la Universidad de Columbia en los Estados Unidos han desarrollado una nueva técnica de imagenología usando luz roja, luz infrarroja cercana para identificar a las pacientes con cáncer de seno que responden a la quimioterapia.

Probaron la técnica en 34 pacientes entre junio de 2011 y marzo de 2016. Las imágenes se obtuvieron antes y dos semanas después del inicio de la quimioterapia.

Identificar la eficacia del tratamiento del flujo sanguíneo

A las pacientes se les pidió que aguantaran la respiración durante al menos 15 segundos para ayudar a los científicos a visualizar el flujo sanguíneo a través de los senos. Los investigadores luego compararon las imágenes con los resultados de los pacientes después de cinco meses de quimioterapia.

“Aunque la sangre fluye libremente a través del tejido mamario sano, es absorbida por los tumores, lo que inhibe el flujo sanguíneo en los senos enfermos”, explicaron los investigadores.

Esta nueva tecnología implica la observación del sistema vascular de los senos, evaluando el flujo sanguíneo para identificar tejidos sanos y tejidos cancerosos a través de imágenes en 3D.

Las imágenes se toman en 10 minutos, en comparación con los 30 a 90 minutos de la resonancia magnética (RM). Permiten a los científicos ver cómo responde un tumor a la quimioterapia antes que otras técnicas de imagenología.

“Otras tecnologías de imagenología, como la RMN, los rayos X y el ultrasonido, también están siendo estudiadas para la vigilancia y el tratamiento del cáncer de mama. Sin embargo, no parece tan prometedor como la nueva técnica”, según los autores del estudio.

Estos nuevos hallazgos podrían ayudar a los profesionales de la salud a hacer cambios oportunos para lograr tratamientos más efectivos y adaptar el tratamiento del cáncer de mama a cada paciente, al tiempo que se evitan los efectos secundarios.

Se requieren ensayos clínicos exhaustivos antes de que este nuevo proceso pueda ser comercializado.

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