Anomalías en las uñas: ¿cual es el diagnóstico?

Las uñas y un diagnóstico

Estriada, gruesa, manchada de blanco, amarillo o negro… las uñas ven todos los colores. Pequeños defectos, la mayoría de las veces no graves, pero no siempre.

Penetra en la piel, es una uña encarnada

El más afectado es el dedo gordo del pie. Esto puede estar relacionado con zapatos demasiado estrechos o deformidades en los dedos de los pies, especialmente en los ancianos o personas con diabetes. La forma en que te cortas las uñas también entra en juego. Preferimos el tamaño “al cuadrado” dejando que exceda un poco las esquinas en relación con la piel.

Una visita regular a un pedicuro-podiatra puede corregir una malformación temprana. Pero si la piel alrededor de la uña está roja, hinchada y dolorosa, se consulta. Un antiséptico, un antibiótico local y apósitos pueden ser suficientes.

Pero a veces es necesario utilizar productos que destruyen la matriz de la uña o someterse a una cirugía. En caso de deformación de los dedos de los pies, se pueden recomendar plantillas ortopédicas que modifiquen el soporte del pie para evitar que se repita.

Infección de las líneas horizontales de las cutículas

Cuando la piel que protege la base de la uña (cutícula) está dañada, es probable que entren bacterias en la matriz de la uña (área productora de queratina). Las líneas horizontales aparecen en la superficie, especialmente en personas que a menudo usan detergentes sin guantes.

Para minimizar los riesgos, no corte o arranque las cutículas, sino que simplemente empújelas suavemente hacia atrás. En el eccema, la piel es más frágil, por lo que es necesario estar aún más atento. Después de una muestra para identificar el germen responsable, se prescribe una crema antibiótica y, dependiendo del resultado del examen, un antibiótico oral.

Manchas blancas probablemente un pequeño trauma

Normalmente, la uña sana es del mismo color que la piel, visible en transparencia. Si aparecen pequeñas manchas blancas como burbujas de aire, no hay nada de qué preocuparse. Contrariamente a una idea muy extendida, no es un signo de falta de calcio, sino de microtraumatismos (bricolaje, cocción…) que provocan un pequeño desprendimiento de la uña. No hay mucho que hacer: sólo hay que esperar a que vuelva a crecer.

Grueso, amarillento o blanquecino, a menudo con hongos

Un área blanca o amarilla en la uña del dedo gordo del pie, que se extiende gradualmente hacia su base, una uña engrosanda…. a menudo es un hongo. Antiestético, pero indoloro al principio. Piscina, ducha, sudor, zapatos demasiado estrechos, dedos que se superponen o levantan… los factores que los favorecen son numerosos. Y es posible la propagación a las uñas vecinas.

El tratamiento local con barniz antifúngico suele ser suficiente. Pero si la matriz de la uña se ve afectada, puede ser necesario un muestreo y tratamiento oral adicional.

Las rayas verticales en las uñas quebradizas es la edad!

Al igual que con el cabello o la piel, no todos somos iguales en la cara de las uñas envejecidas! En algunos casos, las estrías aparecen en exceso de espesor a lo largo. Pueden terminar en una pequeña grieta que debilita la uña.

Como también puede ser una señal de deficiencia de hierro, nos aseguramos de que haya hierro en nuestra dieta (carne roja, lentejas). Y usted cuida sus uñas con cuidado: limando sus puntas para evitar que se rompan, refinando y alisando su superficie con una lima y aplicando un barniz de refuerzo.

Un borde rojo, caliente e hinchado, sin duda un fondo blanco.

Las pequeñas pieles alrededor de las uñas se llaman “deseos”, porque hay que resistir la tentación de arrancarlas para evitar infecciones. Una herida, una astilla, la humedad, el hábito de morderse las uñas, el uso de accesorios de manicura no desinfectados…. todo esto puede promover al panico.

Desinfectar un labado de dedos (Solución de Betadina), a realizar varias veces al día y aplicar un apósito. Si la inflamación persiste durante varios días, en caso de dolor y fiebre, es necesario consultar. Puede ser necesaria una intervención para eliminar el pus, así como fármacos antiinflamatorios y antibióticos.

Una mancha oscura causa un riesgo de melanoma

Si la mancha o el arañazo se mueve con la uña en crecimiento, no se preocupe: probablemente se trate de un hematoma. Pero si esta banda marrón o negra, que se parece un poco a un código de barras, permanece fija y se extiende más allá de la uña, es porque se encuentra en la piel.

Por lo tanto, es necesario consultar a un dermatólogo sin demora. Realizará una biopsia (muestreo) para determinar si se trata de un melanoma, un cáncer de piel que necesita ser operado rápidamente.

Se oscurece después de un golpe, es un hematoma.

No es necesario meter el dedo en la puerta para que la uña se ponga negra: un impacto menor o una fricción repetida en los zapatos para caminar también puede causar un hematoma. Si no duele demasiado, esperamos a que la uña vuelva a crecer, pasando por todos los colores del arco iris……

Si es muy doloroso, puede perforarlo usted mismo y extraer la sangre con un clip (previamente calentado con una llama de fósforo para desinfectarlo y luego enfriado). Atención: ¡no quemar la piel por debajo!. Cuando el dolor se irradia más allá de la uña, puede ser necesaria una radiografía para verificar que no hay fractura.

Una técnica para guiar el rebrote

El Dr. Choukroun ha desarrollado un dispositivo para levantar los bordes de la uña para eliminar las zonas engrosadas, restablecer la buena circulación y enderezar la uña a la posición deseada. Luego aplica una pasta acrílica (un tipo de resina) que solidifica y mantiene la uña en el eje deseado a lo largo de su recrecimiento.

Esta técnica indolora se utiliza en caso de engrosamiento (después de un hongo o uña encarnada), deformación y defecto de crecimiento.

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