10 Efectos que las Redes Sociales Tienen Sobre la Salud

Los entusiastas de las redes sociales, ¡cuidado con la adicción! El uso repetido de medios sociales como Facebook, Instagram o Twitter puede llevar al estrés, depresión, trastornos del sueño o incluso a un debilitamiento del sistema inmunológico. Explicaciones.

Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, Vine, Snapchat…. Se les consulta varias veces al día, en nuestros teléfonos inteligentes, tabletas y ordenadores. Pero, ¿qué efectos tienen estas redes sociales en nuestra salud física y mental?.

1- Redes sociales y estrés

Los adictos a las redes sociales estarían más estresados que la persona promedio. La causa: los acontecimientos angustiosos de sus seres queridos, de los que se les informa constantemente. Por lo tanto, el estrés sería contagioso, ¡incluso en las redes sociales!.

Los más afectados por esta ansiedad viral serían las mujeres, que al principio sufren de un nivel más alto de estrés y que se harían más conscientes que los hombres de los angustiosos acontecimientos compartidos en Internet por sus amigos.

2- Redes sociales, depresión y frustración

La felicidad de unos es la desgracia de otros. Este adagio también se aplica a las redes sociales. Varios estudios coinciden en que cuantas más personas visitan Facebook, más comparan sus vidas con los momentos de felicidad que se esparcen por los perfiles de sus amigos.

Por supuesto, sus vidas entonces parecen menos hermosas, menos excitantes y más monótonas que estas vidas idealizadas. Como resultado, se acentúan los sentimientos de depresión, frustración e incluso ira y celos.

3- Redes sociales y trastornos alimentarios

Según un estudio realizado en la Universidad de Pittsburgh (Estados Unidos), las personas que visitan los medios de comunicación social con mayor frecuencia están en mayor riesgo de desarrollar trastornos alimentarios como anorexia o bulimia.

La difusión de los estereotipos de la delgadez o los numerosos retos físicos que transmiten las redes sociales podrían explicar esta observación.

4- Redes sociales y adicciones

No hay conexión a Internet desde hace unos días y la falta ya se siente?. Esto es normal: Facebook tiene los mismos efectos en el cerebro que una dosis de cocaína, según un estudio realizado en la Universidad del Sur de California (Estados Unidos).

La tentación de conectarse a Twitter y Facebook incluso superaría los antojos de sexo, alcohol o cigarrillos, según investigadores de la Universidad de Chicago. Esto se demostró en una reciente encuesta de opinión pública estadounidense en la que la mayoría de los participantes dijeron que preferían no tener relaciones sexuales durante tres meses en lugar de no usar su teléfono inteligente durante una semana.

¿Ese es tu caso?. Tal vez es hora de considerar una “desintoxicación digital”

5- Redes sociales y trastornos del sueño

¿Tiene problemas para conciliar el sueño por la noche?. No te preocupes, coge tu smartphone y empieza a navegar en tu red social favorita. Una mala idea, sin embargo, porque este hábito genera un verdadero círculo vicioso en el que las noches son inquietas y el sueño es de mala calidad.

De hecho, la falta de sueño hace que la gente se distraiga más, lo que la lleva a navegar por Internet a la hora de acostarse, aumentando su adicción a las redes sociales y retrasando la creación de un entorno tranquilo que propicie el sueño. Sobre todo porque la luz de las pantallas envía señales de vigilia al cuerpo, que tendrá aún más dificultad para caer en los brazos de Morfeo.

6- Redes sociales y debilitamiento del sistema inmunológico

Cuanto más consultamos Internet, más nos enfermaríamos. La causa: el estrés inmunológico generado por los períodos en los que el usuario de Internet no está conectado. Esta alternancia de periodos de conexión y desconexión variaría el nivel de cortisol, una hormona que ayuda al cuerpo a defenderse de las infecciones.

7- Redes sociales y vida amorosa

Las redes sociales, y más generalmente el uso de teléfonos inteligentes, serían un verdadero “amor asesino” dentro de la pareja, especialmente durante las vacaciones. Según una encuesta realizada por la marca de preservativos Durex®, el 65% de los encuestados publica fotos o estados en las redes sociales hasta tres veces al día durante sus vacaciones y el 42% prefiere compartir estos momentos primero en Internet que con su mitad.

Además, espiar a tu pareja en las redes sociales tendería a aumentar la ansiedad dentro de la pareja, ya que un estado o comentario puede ser malinterpretado rápidamente.

8- Las redes sociales y la salud mental de los adolescentes

Los adolescentes que pasan más de dos horas al día en las redes sociales corren un mayor riesgo de padecer enfermedades mentales e ideas suicidas y son más propensos a buscar apoyo psicológico.

Pero los investigadores de la Universidad de Ottawa, Canadá, que hicieron este descubrimiento, no saben si los adolescentes con salud mental más frágil tienden a ir más a menudo a las redes sociales, o si es el uso de estas redes lo que debilita la salud mental.

Los jóvenes también dependerán de si reciben o no la aprobación de los medios de comunicación social: el número de menciones “similares” en su mensaje o foto parece estar relacionado con la actividad cerebral en las zonas de recompensa y atención.

9- Redes sociales y trastornos del estado de ánimo

Las emociones de algunas personas influyen en las emociones de sus amigos. La red social Facebook lo demostró recientemente a través de un experimento de manipulación mental. Los estados de ánimo expresados en las redes sociales serían, por lo tanto, masivamente contagiosos. Por ejemplo, la lectura de muchos mensajes positivos de los amigos genera sentimientos negativos y la sensación de ser excluido.

10 – Redes sociales y efectos positivos para la salud

Pero no todo es blanco o negro… Las redes sociales también son beneficiosas en algunos casos. Reducirían el número de embarazos precoces entre las adolescentes, ayudarían a perder peso o reducirían la soledad entre las adolescentes.

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